Should The Nearly Submerged "Zealandia" Be Classified As A Continent?

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World map with Zealandia (Photo Credit: N. Mortimer/GNS Science)

If some geologists have their way, world maps will soon be altered to reflect an eighth continent. Dubbed “Zealandia,” the landmass that lies east of Australia covers 1.9 million mi2 (4.9 million km2), or an area larger than the Indian subcontinent. The only catch? Over 94 percent of it is submerged in the southwest Pacific Ocean, with just the islands of New Zealand and New Caledonia visible above sea level.

To be clear, the underwater land is not a recent find. Researchers have known about its existence since 1995, when Bruce Luyendyk, professor of marine geophysics at UC Santa Barbara, discovered and proposed an eighth continent that he called Zealandia. At the time, the area was dismissed as a collection of islands and land fragments, or at the most, classified as a microcontinent — a landmass of continental crust that is not geologically connected to the nearest continent, in this case, Australia.

Most of Zealandia lies submerged underwater
(Photo Credit: N.Mortimer/GNS Science)

However, after observing the area’s features on an underwater topography map, New Zealand geologist Nick Mortimer became convinced that Zealandia is a continent. The researcher and his team of eight scientists at GNS Science in Dunedin, New Zealand have spent the last twenty years gathering evidence to back up their belief.

In an article published in The Geological Society of America on February 9, 2017, the geologists assert that Zealandia meets all four criteria to be classified as a continent: [a] It has a higher elevation than the oceanic crust, [b] It has a unified well-defined area [c] It has a thicker crust and lower seismic velocity structure than the surrounding oceanic crustal regions, and [d] It comprises of granite, limestone, and sandstone — rocks typically found in continental crusts.

Mortimer says that while Zealandia is much smaller than our seven continents, at over half the size of Australia, it is unfair to classify it as a microcontinent. The geologist argues, “If you could pull the plug on the world’s oceans, then Zealandia would probably long ago have been recognized as a continent.”

The landmass was once part of the supercontinent Gondwana, which broke up into the modern-day Antarctica, Australia, South America, and Africa over 180 million years ago. The researchers believe that during the breakup process, Zealandia was stretched so thin that in some sections, the crust is just 7-miles thick. They speculate it is this slenderness that caused most of the landmass to sink in the ocean.

New Zealand, one of Zealandia’s two landmasses that is above sea level (Photo Credit NASA via Flickr)

Unfortunately, not everyone is convinced Zealandia deserves to be a continent. Northwestern University geologist Christopher Scotese argues that too much of the landmass is underwater, asserting it’s “almost a continent the way Pluto is almost a planet.” Richard Ernst, a geologist at Carleton University in Ottawa, proposes coining a new term — minicontinent— for Zealandia. He thinks this is perfect given that it is too large to be called a microcontinent and too small to be classified as a full-sized continent. Given that there is no international panel to decide the fate of Zealandia, its future as a continent is uncertain. Mortimer hopes that if proponents start using the term “Zealandia,” it may eventually catch on. Whether that happens remains to be seen, but for now, we will have to be satisfied with just seven continents!


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Reading Comprehension (10 questions)

  1. What is Zealandia?
  2. Where is it located?

Critical Thinking Challenge

Do you think Zealandia deserves to be a continent? Why or why not?


Vocabulary in Context

“But at the time, the area was dismissed as a collection of islands and land fragments, or at the most, classified as a microcontinent.”

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  • sans.Friday, March 31, 2017 at 11:47 am
    i dont like the idea of 8 continents
    • blake_boss14
      blake_boss14Friday, March 31, 2017 at 9:53 am
      No, because it is halfway under the water and there are other places like this to that are not contents
      • YOURE GRANDMAFriday, March 31, 2017 at 9:28 am
        Why is some of this continent under water
        • Lacy DiazThursday, March 30, 2017 at 5:37 pm
          I hope it's a continent too. i went to every continent at least 3 times and i wanna go there too. i'm gonna ask my daddy if we could buy some land from Zealandia so i could live there. it would be awesome!!!!!
          • tehrandomperson
            tehrandompersonTuesday, April 4, 2017 at 2:26 pm
            With the permission of well, the government (I live in NZ)
          • lolmasterThursday, March 30, 2017 at 2:21 pm
            even though there still be 8 continents, i wonder if people would think that. Like would they not like it or something.
            • Rodeo chick Thursday, March 30, 2017 at 12:03 pm
              Wow I hope it will be made a continent
              • anonymous Thursday, March 30, 2017 at 11:54 am
                It's called New Zealand
                • MundyThursday, March 30, 2017 at 8:58 am
                  ah my they were right! must apologize now and see
                  • wow_amazingWednesday, March 29, 2017 at 11:05 pm
                    This is amazing!
                    • max243103
                      max243103Wednesday, March 29, 2017 at 1:13 pm
                      I think that we people of the world will half to travel to Zealandia

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