Powerful Earthquakes Trigger Deadly Tsunami in Indonesia


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The epicenter of the Palu, Indonesia earthquake (Image Credit: USGS public domain)

The Southeastern nation of Indonesia, which sits on the Pacific Ring of Fire, is no stranger to earthquakes, many of which trigger tsunamis – powerful waves capable of immense destruction. However, the towering 18-foot wave that crashed into the island of Sulawesi on September 28, 2018 is one of the deadliest to hit the country in recent years.

The perfect storm of the disastrous events began after a 7.5 magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Sulawesi at 6:02 pm local time. The powerful tremor and the numerous aftershocks resulted in landslides that destroyed or buried hundreds of homes and buildings in the city of Palu and caused power outages that crippled communications. Among the most impacted is the Balaroa neighborhood where over 1,747 homes have collapsed, with many residents buried underneath. According to experts, the widespread damage was the result of soil liquefaction. As the name indicates, the phenomenon occurs when saturated, or partially saturated, soil loses strength due to the stress created by an earthquake and starts to behave like a liquid, causing all the structures above to be reduced to rubble.

A mosque remains standing on Palu coast following the tsunami (Photo Credit: saifuldzulkifli via twtter)

The powerful earthquake was also followed by a tsunami warning. However, based on the information available at the time, the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG) decided there was no imminent danger and retracted it about 34 minutes later. Believing the threat had been averted, hundreds of Palu residents, from areas not affected by the earthquake, gathered at the beach for a local festival.

As it turned out, the experts had been wrong. Just about the time the tsunami warning was canceled, the residents began noticing, and recording, a series of massive waves crashing into the shoreline. Then, at 7:58 pm local time, the monstrous 18-foot arose sweeping away everything in its path. Though the tsunami impacted many areas along the stretch of the shore, including the city of Donggala, it was Palu that bore the brunt of its wrath. As of October 4, 2018, the earthquake and the ensuing tsunami are believed to be responsible for the deaths of over 1400 residents, including 86 children who were attending bible camp in a remote region when the disaster struck.

Image Credit: sms-tsunami-warning.com

Though nothing could have been done about the tragedy in Balaroa, many people believe that hundreds of deaths could have been prevented if the tsunami warning had not been lifted. BMKG officials say they followed standard protocol based on the data received from the closest tidal sensor, which lies about 200 km from Palu. "We have no observation data at Palu. So we had to use the data we had and make a call based on that," said Mr. Rahmat Triyono, head of the earthquakes and tsunami center at BMKG. "If we had a tide gauge or proper data in Palu, of course, it would have been better. This is something we must evaluate for the future." The agency also argues that the massive waves witnessed on the Palu coastline should have served as a warning for residents to move to higher grounds.

Given that the 7.5 magnitude earthquake was the result of a strike-slip fault - two blocks of crust rubbing against each other in a horizontal direction – the tsunami also caught other experts by surprise. That’s because the destructive phenomenon is usually the result of a vertical movement in the crust, which disrupts the ocean water and causes massive waves to land onshore. ”It is definitely a surprise,” says Baptiste Gombert, a geophysicist at the University of Oxford.

A bridge at Palu before the earthquake (Photo Credit: Semut Ibrahim via Twitter)

Gombart believes the culprit behind the tsunami’s strength may be the earthquake-caused landslides that disturbed the bay waters, causing them to rise. Janine Krippner, a volcanologist at Concord University, thinks the shape of the narrow Palu Bay may have also played a part in magnifying the already large waves as they entered the smaller area. Both experts caution that these are just hypotheses and the real answer will only be revealed once a complete investigation has been conducted.

The same bridge at Palu after the earthquake (Photo Credit: Semut Ibrahim via Twitter)

Regardless of the reason the tsunami occurred, the survivors in Palu are now dealing with the aftermath. Thousands of homes have been leveled, power lines downed, and streets washed away. All local shops have either been destroyed or looted, leaving residents struggling to get necessities like food and water. The roads to the city of about 350,000 people remain partially closed. While many countries, including Australia and the United States, have sent funds to help those in need, few supplies are being delivered to the affected areas. Our thoughts are with Indonesians and we hope the country is able to recover soon


Resources: Nationalgeographic.com, Vox.com, CNN.com, Forbes.com

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  • veregocecypi
    veregocecypiTuesday, March 9, 2021 at 9:58 am
    they can die so easly
    • foxy798
      foxy798Monday, February 8, 2021 at 5:52 pm
      #staystrongindonesia 👍
      • leighleigh1
        leighleigh1Thursday, October 22, 2020 at 5:59 am
        OMG SO SADD!
        • player78899998
          player78899998Monday, October 12, 2020 at 8:36 am
          yes that is sad
          • bluemoonsofhope
            bluemoonsofhopeSunday, May 3, 2020 at 9:59 am
            This is sad 😢
            • glowinq_stxrs
              glowinq_stxrsSunday, May 3, 2020 at 9:51 am
              I’ve learned about tsunamis during science and I know how to survive a tsunami and my parents told me that I should be a meteorologist when I grow up
              • personFriday, November 8, 2019 at 10:06 am
                super sad
                • Bob Angela Tuesday, November 5, 2019 at 7:50 am
                  That is so devastating people should run not just stand there like some god would just fall from the sky and save them
                  • Ty3Friday, October 11, 2019 at 1:12 pm
                    that's so scary
                    • icecream_heavan
                      icecream_heavanTuesday, October 8, 2019 at 3:29 pm
                      I can't believe they called off the tsunami warning. So many people died! It's good they'll do better in the future. #staystrongIndonesia