NASA Inspired Speed Breeding Technique May Help Feed Earth's Burgeoning Population

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Image Credit: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

Experts estimate that by the year 2050, the world’s population will swell from the current 7.3 billion to over 9.5 billion, with just nine countries accounting for half the growth. If accurate, conventional farming methods, which revolve around growing one or two crops annually, will be unable to sustain the increase in food demand. Now, some Australian scientists may have found a way to cost-effectively accelerate crop yields with a technique called speed breeding, inspired by NASA’s experiments to grow wheat in space.

The team of researchers from University of Queensland’s Jonn Innes Center and the University of Sydney began by planting a variety of crops such as wheat, barley, peas, chickpeas, and canola, in a modified, temperature-controlled glasshouse. The crops were then exposed to intense LED lights — beamed at specific frequencies up to 22 hours a day — to help accelerate photosynthesis.

Photo Credit: University of Queensland

The results, published in the journal Nature on January 1, 2018, exceeded all expectations. The scientists say they were able to grow six generations of wheat, chickpea, and barley plants and four generations of canola plants within a year. In contrast, conventional greenhouses yield just two to three, while outdoor farming produces just one yield a year. The researchers were also able to successfully speed breed peanuts, amaranth, and lentils and believe the technique will work for crops like sunflowers, peppers, and radishes as well.

Even more exciting is that when they compared the plant features, such as the number of tillers, or lateral branches, and grains per spike, they found the crops were much better quality than those grown under standard greenhouse conditions. "People said you may be able to cycle plants fast, but they will look tiny and insignificant, and only set a few seed," said study lead author Brande Wulff. "In fact, the new technology creates plants that look better and are healthier than those using standard conditions.”

Team leader Brande Wuff examining the crop. (Photo Credit: University of Queensland)

Though the technology has thus far been primarily tested only in the lab, it is gradually making its way to industry. Dow AgroSciences, a subsidiary of US-based Dow Chemical Company, has successfully used speed breeding to grow a wheat variety that is more resistant to pre-harvest sprouting, a significant problem in Australia. The scientists believe the technique could also be useful in vertical farming systems, which are becoming increasingly popular. Wulff says, "I would like to think that in 10 years from now you, could walk into a field and point to plants whose attributes and traits were developed using this technology.”


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Reading Comprehension (10 questions)

  1. What will the world population be in 2050?
  2. How many countries will be responsible for half the growth?

Critical Thinking Challenge

List a resource, besides food, that will also be in...


Vocabulary in Context

The scientists say they were able to grow six generations of wheat, chickpea and barley plants and four of canola plants within a year. 

In the above sentence, the word generations...

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  • Let me smashFriday, May 4, 2018 at 7:24 am
    • smashking911
      smashking911Thursday, May 3, 2018 at 6:30 am
      I like supreme kidds idea about breeding exercizes
      • Supreme KiddThursday, April 26, 2018 at 8:49 am
        Very nice like the idea
        • H2O Thursday, April 26, 2018 at 8:26 am
          • PaytonWednesday, April 25, 2018 at 3:46 pm
            It’s a good thing they invetid speed breeding
            • jp Wednesday, April 25, 2018 at 10:17 am
              • sereWednesday, April 25, 2018 at 9:48 am
                oooh i'm telling the teacher
                • Harshest CritiqSunday, April 22, 2018 at 4:45 pm
                  We rly need to all live in apartments so animals have more land to thrive and live in
                  • bakalatelaratakThursday, April 19, 2018 at 4:18 pm
                    this is absulotely bogus.
                    • FORTNITEThursday, April 19, 2018 at 11:05 am
                      AmAzing video loved it

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