These Shipworms Prefer To Eat Rocks Instead Of Wood!

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The Lithoredo abatanica shipworms found in the Philippines, bore into limestone, rather than wood (Credit: Northwestern University/You Tube screen capture)

Shipworms, which munch through wood and help release essential nutrient stored within it, are incredibly beneficial for other marine animals. However, the saltwater bivalve mollusks have been known to sink boats and cause extensive damage to docks, piers, and other wooden structures. Now, researchers have uncovered a shipworm species of a different kind — one that has the potential to change the course of a river by gnawing through its limestone bedrock!

The Lithoredo abatanica, the only known freshwater species of shipworm, appears to be exclusive to the Abatan River in eastern Bohol, Philippines. Researchers first became aware of its existence in 2006. However, it was only recently that a team, led by Reuben Shipway, a postdoctoral researcher at Northeastern University, was able to conduct a detailed analysis of the tiny animals, which are notorious for digging thumb-sized burrows in the river's rocks.

Northwestern University researchers found the shipworms deep inside Abatan River's limestone bedrock Credit: Marvin A. Altamia and Reuben Shipway)

The quest to learn more about the rock-eating shipworms began in 2018 when the team descended upon the Philippines region to obtain specimens. Within a few minutes of splashing around the river bank, they noticed large chunks of sandstone dotted with holes. The scientists split open one using a chisel and hammer, only to find a shipworm wriggling around. "Cracking open the rock and seeing these plump little worms flop out was really, really cool," Shipway told IFLScience. "We knew we had hit shipworm gold."

The researchers noticed that the mollusks did not resemble other members of their species. "Most shipworms are long, skinny, and worm-like — usually as big as your pinky in terms of thickness, so these ones are really quite different," said Shipway. "These animals are quite chubby, robust. They look really different."

A cross-section of the rock-eating shipworm revealed many anatomical differences from its wood-eating peers (Credit: Marvin A. Altamia and Reuben Shipway)

A closer study of the rock-eating specimens, published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B on June 19, 2019, revealed further differences. Unlike wood-eating shipworms, which have hundreds of sharp, invisible teeth covering their shells, the rock-eating L. abatanica sported a few dozen thicker, larger teeth more suitable for burrowing through the limestone.

Saltwater shipworms also store the wood they consume inside a special digestive sack, where special bacteria breaks it down. The freshwater species, however, have neither a storage area nor bacteria, leading the researchers to conclude they don't depend on the rocks — which are excreted as sand — for sustenance. This led the team to speculate the tiny mollusks may be obtaining their nutrition from bacteria inside their gills. Alternatively, similar to their wood-eating cousins, they could also be sucking in plankton through the siphon located on their rear end.

Shipway says, "Lots of other species of shipworms rely on their gill symbionts to provide the nutrition. Our next research priority is to check whether these symbionts are present in these gills and try to figure out if they are helping to provide nutrition for these animals."

The burrows created by the shipworms provide homes for other sea creatures (Credit Marvin A. Altamia and Reuben Shipway)

Though the mollusks' rock-eating habit has the potential to change the river's course some day, it is extremely beneficial for animals in the ecosystem. The crevices the shipworms create in the limestones make perfect homes for crabs, snails, and small fish. Also, unlike the wood-eating shipworms, the L. abatanica are very popular among the locals who consume them raw dipped in a sauce made of vinegar, onions, ginger, and salt. Warlita Manug Armildez of Bohol, Philippines, told IFL Science, "It has a slippery but slightly crunchy texture, but if left in the vinegar for too long it becomes soft. It has a fishy seafood taste, a bit like sea cucumber, before dipping in the sauce." Yum?

Resources: IFLscience.com,phys.org,sciencemag.org, blogs.discovermagazine.com

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317 Comments
  • little_angel27
    little_angel27Friday, January 3, 2020 at 4:48 am
    They leave a nasty mess afterward. Eww! but i hope they don't get extinct!!^_^
    • fate34
      fate34Friday, January 3, 2020 at 9:13 pm
      I have mixed feelings about that...
    • caramelrainbow
      caramelrainbowMonday, December 30, 2019 at 5:04 pm
      Cool, but weird😲😎
      • tmd_goat_god
        tmd_goat_godThursday, December 19, 2019 at 7:04 am
        That is weird.
        • croczgamings
          croczgamingsTuesday, December 10, 2019 at 6:13 pm
          oh my I only thought they ate apples
          • savetheturtlepl
            savetheturtleplThursday, December 12, 2019 at 10:44 am
            no those are worms that is a spitworm
          • megaladon
            megaladonMonday, December 9, 2019 at 12:03 pm
            SO ugly😷
            • fluffygirl171
              fluffygirl171Tuesday, December 3, 2019 at 10:55 am
              So cute but gross...>.<
              • h8erluvergirl
                h8erluvergirlWednesday, November 27, 2019 at 9:27 am
                that was so gross and cute at the same time
                • jenecisbatres
                  jenecisbatresFriday, December 6, 2019 at 12:52 pm
                  how is it cute
                • buzzybee820
                  buzzybee820Friday, November 22, 2019 at 2:55 pm
                  Omg they are so cute :3 .
                  • getitgirl
                    getitgirlSunday, December 15, 2019 at 11:49 am
                    HOW ARE THEY CUTE
                    • queen_onyx
                      queen_onyxFriday, January 3, 2020 at 1:08 pm
                      I agree how are they cute? They are super nasty am I right
                      • fate34
                        fate34Friday, January 3, 2020 at 9:05 pm
                        Yea, they are not cute!
                      • littlecupcakecu
                        littlecupcakecuSunday, December 22, 2019 at 9:10 am
                        They are nasty ewwwwwww!!!!! 😷
                    • nonamenoob
                      nonamenoobThursday, November 21, 2019 at 8:04 am
                      Aren't they almost extinct SAVE THEM
                      • xxlightfurygurl
                        xxlightfurygurlWednesday, November 20, 2019 at 11:28 am
                        cool and a little gross >.<