Jupiter and Saturn Will Form A Rare "Winter Star" On December 21, 2020

By

CCSS NAS-4 594 Words 4-Minute Listen
Jupiter and Saturn will come together in a rare conjunction on December 21, 2020 (Credit: The International Astronomical Union/Martin Kornmesser, CC BY-SA 3.0/Wikimedia Commons)

The dark mornings and low temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere may lead one to think that winter is well on its way. However, the astronomical start of the chilly season will not be until December 21, 2020. Called the winter solstice, it is the point in time when the Northern Hemisphere is farthest away from the sun, resulting in less sunlight to the region this year. 2020's longest night will coincide with two exciting celestial events — the peak of the Ursids meteor shower and a "great conjunction" of the solar system's two largest planets, Jupiter and Saturn.

A conjunction occurs when two planets appear close to each other in the sky because they line up with Earth in their respective orbits around the Sun. While observing the celestial bodies alongside each other is always exciting, Jupiter and Saturn's alignment is even more so since it occurs once about every 20 years.

The movement of Jupiter and Saturn in our sky from December 12-30, if viewing from the Southern Hemisphere (Credit: Stellarium.org)

The winter solstice meet-up between the two gaseous giants is even more remarkable given that they will seem to be just a tenth of a degree apart — close enough to appear like one massive "winter star" — from Earth. Jupiter and Saturn previously came this close in 1623 but were not visible to most skywatchers because of their location in the night sky. The last time Earthlings were able to observe this phenomenon was almost 800 years ago, in 1226, and the next time will not be until the year 2080! The best part? The "greatest great conjunction," as it is being called, can be observed from anywhere on Earth!

"You can imagine the solar system to be a racetrack, with each of the planets as a runner in their own lane and the Earth toward the center of the stadium,” said Henry Throop, an astronomer in the Planetary Science Division at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC. “From our vantage point, we’ll be able to see Jupiter on the inside lane, approaching Saturn all month and finally overtaking it on December 21.”

The movement of Jupiter and Saturn in our sky from December 12-30, if viewing from the Northern Hemisphere (Credit: Stellarium.org)

According to NASA researchers, while the gaseous planets may appear as one from Earth, they are actually hundreds of millions of miles apart in space. Also, while the conjunction's occurrence on the winter solstice is fortuitous for Northern Hemisphere residents, it is merely a coincidence, based on the planets' orbits and the Earth's tilt.

“Conjunctions like this could happen on any day of the year, depending on where the planets are in their orbits,” said Throop. “The date of the conjunction is determined by the positions of Jupiter, Saturn, and the Earth in their paths around the Sun, while the date of the solstice is determined by the tilt of Earth’s axis. The solstice is the longest night of the year, so this rare coincidence will give people a great chance to go outside and see the solar system.”

Ready to watch this once-in-a-lifetime phenomenon? Here are some tips from the experts. Head to a park or field where you can get a clear view of the sky an hour after sunset, and look towards the southwestern sky. Jupiter will appear like a sparkling, unblinking star, even amid bright city lights. The slightly fainter Saturn will be visible towards Jupiter's east for those in the Northern Hemisphere and west for those in the Southern Hemisphere. Though no special equipment is needed, using binoculars or a small telescope will enable you to see Saturn's famous rings and Jupiter's four large moons! Mark your calendars today, and be sure to share your experience by adding a comment below.

Happy Viewing!

Resources: NASA.gov, Earth&Sky.org, Space.com

Get the Workbook for this article!

Workbook contains: Article, Reading Comprehension, Critical Thinking Questions, Vocabulary in Context (+ answers), Multiple Choice Quiz (+ answers), Parts of Speech Quiz (+ answers), Vocabulary Game (+ answers)
Cite Article
304 Comments
  • tonyynot
    tonyynotMonday, February 1, 2021 at 7:07 am
    im missed it also 😭😭😟
    • robloxtime999
      robloxtime999Thursday, February 18, 2021 at 5:46 am
      so did i
    • src12
      src12Sunday, January 31, 2021 at 9:09 pm
      I missed it. But it must be cool to see it!
      • cutelypanda
        cutelypandaSunday, January 31, 2021 at 11:07 am
        Omg so cool
        • unicorn87
          unicorn87Friday, January 29, 2021 at 5:02 pm
          ughhh............. I missed it! I don't look at the sky for cool stars but I would have been lucky too see it
          • proben1508
            proben1508Friday, January 29, 2021 at 4:44 pm
            I was going to see it at night but I'm in North America so I can't see it.
            • ailen
              ailenTuesday, January 26, 2021 at 6:50 am
              I missed it
              • beyourself21
                beyourself21Sunday, January 24, 2021 at 9:06 pm
                I saw it a couple days before Christmas but it probably does not look the same. Now I have to wait another 60 years to even think about seeing it.😢 so sad
                • rndmdudfrmmars
                  rndmdudfrmmarsTuesday, January 26, 2021 at 6:49 pm
                  LOL. No. You wont ever see it. They wont align for another 500 years or so.
                  • tonyynot
                    tonyynotMonday, February 1, 2021 at 7:08 am
                    no only in another 20 years
                • rosie17
                  rosie17Saturday, January 23, 2021 at 2:00 pm
                  It was so beautiful!!! 🤩 🪐
                  • gifowonynuba
                    gifowonynubaFriday, January 22, 2021 at 2:31 pm
                    I missed it too!!!!! :(
                    • braxton9447
                      braxton9447Friday, January 22, 2021 at 12:07 pm
                      too bad im in north america I can't see it I with i was there instead of canada cuz itś cold here